The info on this page is from a book. And like all book research I do I never include everything from the book. So I suggest checking it out for yourself and reading it and filling in the details that I left out.



A field guide to Demons, Fairies, Fallen Angels, and other subversive Spirits By: Carol K. Mack and Dinah Mack

How to identify a Basic Demon
The demon is universally regarded as an incorporeal spirit who can actualize in many ways, yet is usually depicted as a grotesque hybrid: part Homo Sapiens, part wild beast, it always walk upright. It has other recognizably human features, but often quite unnatural or uncommon ones, such as way too many fingers or none at all, no bones, no skin, or perhaps several heads. There is something about its mouth and teeth that is always alarming.
The entire species is composed of supernatural, composite feral creatures with telltale tails (often hidden from view), hooves or talons, bat-like wings, and intense heliophobia. In its basic shape, scales or fur covers at least half its body (the hidden half) and its “real face” is one that inspires terror. Even when at a village dance, dressed to kill and looking irresistibly attractive, it can always be recognized by its feet. Whether they are those of a rooster, goat, goose, or pig, webbed, or fish/snake bottom, a discreet glance down will confirm its true nature.
Shape-shifting is the supernatural art of creating illusory appearances and transformations out of thin air. Demons, using only their energy, can appear as smoke, as temptresses, animals, grains of sand, flickering lights, blades of grass, or neighbors.

How to identify a common fairy
Fairies cast a “glamour” over their prey like moonlight, an illusory attractiveness so utterly bewitching that are in too enchanted to ask who they really are until it’s too late. Fairies are usually depicted in a positive light, they are usually of feminine gender and seen as dainty, winsome, small or even tiny humans with wings that are often gossamer, sometimes like those of a butterfly and sometimes angelic. But a glance down will reveal talons instead of feet. Fairies tend to vanish rather than shape-shift. They can shape-shift if they want to, however, and are often sighted in human guise at village dances and markets. There is no certainty about their essential form, but the consensus is they are transparent.
Fairies live in a subterranean parallel universe of their own that is often entered via holes un the ground, a mountainside, or a hill, and also in subaqueous castles entered via a lake or river. Fairyland is not one of everyday experience, it is other, and only visible from time to time to special adults and children, not because the viewers will it, but because they somehow fall upon it by chance.
Fairies, like demons, may be the residue of ancient deities, diminutive nature spirits, and have also been considered the souls of the dead or fallen angels. Fairy lore is often interchangeable with demonic lore, although demons have a worse reputation because they’ve been confused with “devils”.
Except when they kidnap human babies or borrow human males to propagate their species, fairies prefer to have nothing to do with the human community.

Approaches to the field
When and where can the carious species be found? Location is a more ambiguous issue, since the other world surrounds us like undetectable ether, but the surest way to encounter a demon manifesting itself in our world is to venture alone, at night, outside town boundaries. Your presence will probably invite an abundant display of demon plumage, according to every source on the demonic spirits, from canonical texts to occult books, epics, myth, folklore, and superstitions of all peoples, the dark spirits rise at sunset.

The Guide is arranged by habitat.
-The Guide begins with water, the element of formless potential from which creation and consciousness emerge. It’s distinctive characteristics are seen in its teeming population of aquatic femmes fatales who cause musts, drownings, and shipwrecks.
-The mountain, considered the sacred abode of the divine spirits, holds in crevices and caves a huge hidden population of fairies, who often hover like flickering lights over precipices.
-The forest houses a wild kingdom of (mostly) predatory male demons, often camouflaged as beasts or trees, who spring suddenly from shadows to catch and devour hunters and domestic animals.
-The species of the Desert frequently display as whirling powerful sandstorms but also appear in friend guise and soon shape-shift to alien form, or instantly vanish along with their tented villages, all expressing the powerful stat of flux and shifting reality of this terrain.
-For armchair travelers, the Domicile houses the most variegated species of demons: they lurk in the doorway, in the bedroom, where seductive succubi or incubi often appear to any solitary spouse whose mate is away, and in the kitchen or basement in the genius loci puttering about all night.
-Lastly, closer than home, is the terrain of the Psyche. One doesn’t have to leave one’s mind to witness the lively Dybbuk, werewolf, or Kitsune-Tsuki, who leave their prey looking quite normal but for that telltale vocal change and a new jene sais quoi behind the eyes.

Origin of the Species
In the beginning, invisible hordes wing through the universe faster than the speed of light. In the world of each tree, lake, rock, wall, and hearth pulse with indwelling power, and any abnormal change of weather, fortune, or health is attributed to unseen agencies of shadowy, anonymous collectives.
In ancient Greece, Hesiod refers to innumerable invisible daimons of two general types: the daimons of the hero cult that act as guardian spirits, and the other daimons, evil spirits of disease that can cause harm.
It is Plato who definitively classifies and establishes the function of the daemonic species for us, in his symposium: the Daimon is an intermediary spirit, described as neither god nor mortal but something between them.
Shedim were demons to whom other people preferred sacrifices.
One Jewish source related that the demons were created on the sixth day of creation when the lord was producing many creatures, but he was interrupted by the approaching eve of sabbath, and so there was not time to give all the souls he had created bodies of their own. Another Jewish source claimed that a demon race existed long before humankind and grew so arrogant that finally humans were created to replace them. Meanwhile, in India, ancient spirits were winged hovering siblings of equal power. They were all brilliant shape-shifters who shared the power to create illusion (Maya).
Myth has it that the gods and Asuras were working together cooperatively to churn the cosmic ocean and produce the Elixir of Immortality when Vishnu appeared as a tortoise with the world mountain on his back wrapped round with the world serpent. The gods grabbed the serpent’s tail and the Asuras it’s head. When the Elixir was ready, the serpent spit venom at the demons, temporarily blinding them while the gods gulped down the drink.
In any case, in Hinduism, the Asuras lost immortal status, but kept a longevity of eons.
Farther east in Asia we witness demonic power as the wrathful or terrific aspect of a deity, to be harnessed for various uses. In Buddhism, the demon was considered basically as an obstacle to enlightenment. In Tibetan Buddhism we see how the “weapon” of compassion can utterly transform a demon.
In China, the Yin/Yang symbol shows a bit of light extending into the dark, and a bit of dark in the light, all in a whole circle of inextricable oneness.
The Chinese gui (deceased persons who do not become shen) become demons, devils, and goblins who prey upon mankind if not fed and given offerings by the living. These restless spirits cast no shadow and usually serve the gods who govern the universe and punish evildoers. They can possess humans or cause misfortune. The gui of suicides go about wearing a red ribbon around their throats and try to convince others to do the same (and so take their place in hell).
Chinese lore of demons springs from a mix of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. It is rich and colorful and much is found in Taoist tales. When visiting Eastern habitants, one finds oneself in a constantly transforming, dreamlike reality where there is no sure footing, and shen, gui, the world itself, can vanish instantly.
Demons wait to trip us up at birth, at weddings, at death, at the building of houses, at setting out on travels, at having too good a piece of luck, or when accounting for a piece of bad fortune. They are ever present and uninvited. Naturally, they produce oceans of advice on how to avert them, how to conjure, control, or tame them, how to exorcize them, how to rid the house or mind of them.

Water
Water, considered to be the element of formless potential, beyond order or cultivation, covers two-thirds of the earth’s surface and holds a vast supernatural population in its fathomless depths. In the lore of Japan, India, Egypt, and Babylonia, and in the Jewish tradition, it was the primal sea from which creation emerged.
As a sacred element, water is believed to hold purifying and healing powers. It can relieve thirst, renew the earth, or destroy by flood. If water is withheld there will be drought and death. It is both the elixir of life and the source of the deluge.

Tiamat (Mesopotamia)
Tiamat, of the Babylonian epic of creation (first Millennium B.C.), is an ancient sea goddess who gave birth to all. Part glistening cosmic serpent, part winged animal, her image may superficially appear more dragon than demon. But within, she holds the essential DNA of all demonic species: the dark, creative, turbulent, protean spirit of the unconscious deep.
Lore: When skies above were not yet named nor earth below pronounced by name there was water...
And Tiamat mingled her salt seas with the fresh waters of Apsu, her consort, and bore populations of gods who lived within her darkness until finally Apsu could no longer bear the disorder and clam or of the young gods. Tiamat collaborated with her son and destroyed Apsu. Generations passed, until her great-great-grandson, the solar god Marduk, challenged her dominion.
Marduk was a perfect hero. He had four eyes and four ears and could breath fire. In preparation for the battle, Marduk made a bow and arrow and a huge net. Carrying a spell on his lips, an herb in one hand that worked against Tiamat’s poisons, and a mace in the other, he mounted hid terrifying storm chariot and marshaled the seven winds to follow him into battle.
Tiamat was infuriated. From her rage came forth monsters, demons, horned snakes, bull men, fish men, filled not with blood but venom. Marduk challenged her and she lost to Marduk and Tiamat us primordial chaos.
Water is, with rare exception, seen as female and quintessentially Tiamat, and it’s anarchic, untamable spirits surface globally. Despite its terrific dangers, we also arise from these fertile depths both in body and consciousness.

Mermaid (Global)
The mermaid is a species of human size, rapacious, saltwater femmes fatales. The characteristics shape of the mermaid distinguishes from afar. From ancient sailors we hear “it is a beaste of the sea, wonderly shape as a mayde from the navel upwarde”. The mermaid always has shining hair streaming in wavelets over ample breasts and very fair skin-a skin so strong, however, that it could be used for making soles of boots that would last three years or more. Her seal-like lower torso that ends on one or two fish tails in conveniently hidden by surf. The species is long-necked and comely with distinctive voice and luring song.
From Ancient Greece come three supernatural spirits whose images and attitudes contribute to the development of the mermaid: Skylla (“Bitch”), the six-headed monster with triple rows of teeth in each canine mouth who could devour six sailors at a time when their ships sailed close enough to her cave; the Sirens, with women’s heads and bird bodies, later seen with fish tails, who sang irresistibly; and most important, the fifty nereids, ancient sea fairies who lived in an underwater kingdom but came up to the surface to play.
There has been some debate as to whether the mermaid is utterly malicious or just forgetful about human ability to breathe underwater.
Mermaids habitually eat their victims after drowning them. From Portugal comes a 17th-century sighting that claims they eat only the nose, eyes, tips of fingers, and private parts of their prey, and toss the rest on the sand, where the dismembered corpses are eventually found. On the other hand, once in awhile, a human man follows a mermaid to her world beneath the waves and lives underwater in splendor.
Dispelling and disarming:
Some say placing barrels on the side of ships discourages the species from getting to close. Once they do there’s no getting away, so it is important to be well informed.

Merman (Global)
The merman, male of the species, is said to have a powerful, attractive upper torso, a fish bottom, and a hollow look in his eyes. He is reputedly always lusting after human females and carrying them off whenever possible, making it a general rule of thumb that “no woman should adventure to come near the sea, except her husband were with her”,
It is said that the merman keeps the souls of drowned sailors or humans under pots or in cages in his underworld palace at the very depths of the sea, lake, or river.
Disarming and dispelling:
Nothing is said of the fate of the human neighbor after his exploit, however, since mermen and mermaids are well known for their vengeful natures, and since the weather, mists, rains and floods are influenced by these spirits, it can only be assumed that inclement weather arose and the farmer may have found himself in the depths again as prisoner.
Kappa (Japan)
The Kappa, a life-sucking amphibian, usually lives in swampy pools, but watch for it while swimming in any river, lake or stream. The Kappa is the size of a ten-year-old boy; it has webbed hands and feet, a tortoise shell covering it’s back, the face of a monkey, a long beaky nose. It is quite slimy and emits a putrid odor. It’s most singular characteristic is a large bowl like indentation on the top if its head, filled with a clear, gelatinous fluid. This mysterious substance is the secret of the Kappa’s power. Around this indentation it wears its black hair in a short page boy style.
The Kappa pulls its human victims into the water and sucks the life out of them. Avoiding the neck, it always sucks out their entrails through the anus. It is said to enjoy the human liver most of all. Sometimes the Kappa will just take a bite of flesh as a snack and nibble.
Dispelling and disarming:
Although the Kappa usually gets its prey, there is one well known method of escape. It is based on the fact that a Kappa is notoriously courteous, that bowing is a national custom, and that the creature’s head indentation holds all its power in liquid form. The Kappa is also said to love cucumbers, eggplants and fleshy melon,

Rusalka (Russia)
The Rusalka (pl. Rusalki), a charming amphibious lake/river species, is best sighted on a clear night when the moonlight reflects off her long pistachio green hair. With delicate pale skin and comely features, she is as much a temptress as any of her saltwater cousins, but she can also shape-shift into toad, frog or fish with alacrity.
The original Rusalka is a Russian underwater princess who lives in a palace at the utmost depths of the river or lake. She is always on the alert for a mortal playmate to share her palatial digs. She uses her amphibian prowess to roam about on land luring children with baskets of goodies and young men with her obvious charms.
Dispelling and Disarming:
The sign of the cross, so effective in this tale, can disarm many western demonic spirits, and when it does, proves them to be of that ilk. Another method is to draw a magic circle and drag the Rusalka inside.

Munuane (South America)
The Munuane is a toothless, gray-haired guardian demon with eyes in his knees. He always travels on a simple raft. He carries a bow and only one arrow, for he never misses his target. He is very large and somewhat slow-witted but equipped with charismatic power and can physically lure his victims to him. The Munuane is considered by the Sikuani to be the “Master of the fish”, and will appear whenever there are many fish in the water.
Dispelling and disarming:
When fishing in Sikuani waters, it is said a person must take only what he truly needs. The Munuane lives to protect local residents and, as their guardian, considers all human beings edible and destructive. If, by acting greedy, the hunter should encounter the Munuane, its knees are its weakness.

Wahwee (Australia)
The Wahwee is a deep-water-hole amphibian of the aborigine with a frog like head, a long tail, and three legs on either side of it’s body. It is nearly thirty feet long. It is known for its insatiable appetite and for its supernatural power to cause flooding, rain or drought.
The Wahwee us best sighted after everybody has fallen fast asleep, when it slithers silently over the ground to a campsite and selects its human meals. It swallows its victims whole, and after thirty or fifty average-size humans is still hungry. It will also eat bush animals such as kangaroo, wallaby and wombat.
Dispelling and Disarming:
It seems in this case that it was true love that conquered the Wahwee and transformed his habitat into a site of great beauty. However, one must consider that the lovers were sacrificed in the effort.

Madame White (China)
Madame White, a lethal, possessive, eerie demon of Taoist lore, appears as a fabulously beautiful human woman dressed in white. She has typical fairy features: a dainty, cheery like mouth, a tiny waist, and petite feet. She is always accompanied by a demure maid dressed all in blue. Her appearance is utterly illusionary, and she will revert, under stress, to her demonic form: a white python. Her maid is a blue fish.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Watch for this species on holidays like Qing Ming, the Festival of the Dead, when the boundary between the spirit and terrestrial world is fragile and the air is filled with spirits. There are no ordinary measures known and these matters must be left to professionals.

Kelpie (Scotland)
The Kelpie, also known as Each-uisg, is a male amphibian species that can be found in and near all moving water and notably in Loch Ness. The Scotland west coast Kelpie is described as a young, sleek, handsome horse, black or brown in color, who can shape-shift into human form. The east coast variety has been sighted only as a golden yellow “horse”. The Kelpie has skin like glue after enticing humans onto his back, he gallops away with his victims stuck on for the final ride into the depths of the river. When plunging into the water, the Kelpie slaps his tail hard against the surface, making a tremendous banging sound, and disappears under the water to devour his prey.
There are, unfortunately, many stories of children who are out playing much too close to the water’s edge when a handsome horse suddenly appears. He draws the children onto his back, and can actually lengthen his body to make room for as many as twenty of them.
Dispelling and Disarming:
When approaching loch country, remember: Kelpies are an unflaggingly persistent species and fatal encounters cannot be averted by usual methods. There is only one thing that can stop a Kelpie. Though they live in moving water, Kelpies cannot be exposed to still water of any kind: puddle water, rain or tap water, or non-fizzy bottled water.

Nixie (Teutonic)
The Nixie is a freshwater femme fatale amphibian. Like the mermaid, she has a characteristic profile of breasts and fish tail. But watch for some odd features here. She has been said to be completely green: skin, hair, and teeth. She has even been sighted from time to time as a gray horse. She is often found in the mill pond. Unlike the traditional mermaid, the Nixie always dwells very close to and mingles with human communities.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Travelers who may need to drink water inhabited by a Nokk, spit in it first to avert harm. In Sweeden, when planning to go swimming, first throw a steel knife or scissors into the water and say: “Nokk, Nokk, needle thief, thou art on the land but I am in the water.” Conversely, when emerging say: “Nokk, Nokk, needle thief, I am on land, and thou art in the water.”

Tikoloshe (South Africa)
A Tikoloshe is a river amphibian demon of the Xhosa people. Short and hirsute, he walks on land swinging his arms like a baboon. The Tikoloshe is known for his voracious sexual appetite, and preys upon local village women. But the Tikoloshe can also be seen in urban areas as far away as Natal and Johannesburg, where he often travels to copulate.
A Tikoloshe wheedles his way into a woman’s heart by offering to carry her heavy bundles or her water jar in return for sexual favors. Like most amphibian river species, Tikoloshe mingle with the human community in many forms. They can appear at dances in the village, dressed quite convincingly like attractive neighbors. They are extraordinarily charming and seductive, and it is well known that many women find them irresistible and fall under their spell. However, if a woman does not succumb to his charms, a Tikoloshe will become vicious and take her by force.
Dispelling and Disarming:
One common custom is to raise one’s bed on bricks. This prevents the very short Tikoloshe from snatching a sleeping female away in the night.

Nuckelavee (Scotland)
The Nuckelavee is a lethal amphibian centaur. He has a head the size of a small human, and his mouth, which rests on a snout like piggish projection, is a several feet in width. He is human-shaped upper body rises from his horse like torso. He has only one eye, which is huge and bloodshot. However, what makes the Nuckelavee uniquely unsightly in appearance is that he has no skin at all.
The Nuckelavee is from the Fuath (Fou-a) family. Many of the male Fuath have tails, manes, webbed feet, and are noseless. The females sometimes marry mortal men.
It is said that if a Nuckelavee breathes on a vegetable it withers, and if he breathes on a animal it could die on the spot. He is blamed for crops that are blighted by sea winds, and for the death of cattle that fall from the rocks near the edge of the sea. He is also blamed for epidemics and for droughts. He seems driven by a vengeful desire to do as much harm as possible by land, sea and air.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Travelers in the Scottish Isles carry a bottle of spring water with them. As a rule of thumb sweet water and not salt-water dispels demons. All Fuaths can be harmed by steel or sunlight.

Bunyip (Australia)
The Bunyip is an important lagoon species of the Aborigine, at least four times the size of a seal or about the size of a small bull. It is covered with gray hair. (Or sometimes feathers.) It has hoofed feet like those of a horse, a flat, widetail, and a very wide mouth filled with sharp teeth and two walrus like fangs. It is said to have an equine mane down the middle of its neck like the Kelpie, a head like an emu, and big flippers. The Bunyip can be heard long before it is seen. It has a distinctive loud and repetitive roar.
The Bunyip stays primarily in the lagoon and seizes anyone who comes too close to its habitat. Instead of devouring its victims, it holds them prisoner, makes them work, and eats them later. The Bunyip also is said to have a long-lasting supernatural claim over its human or misfortune. The Bunyip also has power to control or cause flood or drought.
Dispelling and Disarming:
There is nothing to be dome to avert the wrath of the Bunyip once provoked, so the tales serve to warn travelers to be mindful at the lagoon and to obey various prohibitions not to pollute or greedily consume. This demon embodies the unlimited fury of nature’s retaliatory powers, which can even cause an annihilating deluge.

Vodyanoi (Russia)
The Vodyanoi is a male freshwater species whose primary residence is at the utmost depths of millponds. He has been sighted as an old man with a greenish beard all covered with muck, or sometimes covered with scales. It is said that he is half fish, half man and some insist they have seen a tail. Most say he never comes all the way up to the surface of the water, and that he rarely moves from his site usually near the dam or mill wheel. He is considered responsible for all local drownings. Further, if anyone attempts to retrieve a body for burial, the act invites retaliation.
Dispelling and Disarming:
To avert human sacrifices, local folk use a chicken or a black rooster in rites of propitiation, and the Vodyanoi is usually placated. It is said that crossing oneself before diving in will lessen any problems that may arise on a close encounter.

Mbulu (South Africa)
The Mbulu is an amphibian river species of the Zulu people who appears human at first glance. But a careful look reveals scaly skin and a long, extraordinary tail that has at the tip a mouth with very sharp teeth and a will if its own. When the Mbulu comes out onto land, it is notorious for following people down lonely paths and whispering softly in their ears.
Disarming and Dispelling:
Courage and alertness is called for with the trickster demon Mbulu, as well as a sophisticated knowledge of its habits and uncontrollable tail. As long as the heroine remained in victim mode, she was enslaved, but when she raised her voice in song, she was able to conquer the demon.

Merrow (Ireland)
The Merrow, in Irish, Moruadh or Moruach is a uniquely musical species of sea fairy that is believed to have been ancestor to certain human families living today on the western and southern coasts of Ireland. Its nature is one of profound attachment to mortal men, whom the Merrow enchants easily. They are always wearing red caps covered with feathers, which somehow endows them with the ability to dive to their undersea homes. Their music is heard coming from the depths of the ocean, or at times notes float on the surface. They can be seen dancing to it on the shore or on the waves. They are charming and seductive by nature but extremely vengeful if crossed. They are all daughters of kings who live beneath the waves.

Ponaturi (New Zealand)
The Maori Ponaturi is a coastal species of malevolent sea fairies who live in the watery deeps. Their skin is greenish white with an unnatural inner phosphorescent radiance and their long fingers end in clawlike talons. They can be seen ashore in the middle of the night and glow eerily in the dark.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Like all demons, the Ponaturi have a fatal flaw, and humans can use daylight as a weapon. Like most demonic spirits the fairies are creative as well as destructive and can become a source of inspiration.

Mountain
Mountains have universally been considered the abode of the Divine, their highest peaks, often concealed in mist and clouds, are sacred sites of revelation to which only the holy may ascend. Mount Sinai, Mount Olympus, Mount Fuji, Mount Ararat, the first sacred mountains of China, Mount Meru in Tanzania, Mount Kailas in Tibet all have been placed of contact with the other world. As always, spirit imbibed territory holds terrible danger and is forbidden to mere mortals.
When lightning flashes and thunder rumbles ominously, the powerful mountain peaks are thought to be the origins of storms. The waters that crash down and pour into rivers are necessary to life itself, and when withheld their source must be appeased through sacrifice. Who can approach mountain’s awesome peaks? It is clearly off limits to ordinary human beings. If cliffs, gorges, and avalanches doesn’t scare a person off, the mountain holds demonic spirits in great abundance to warn a daring climber. The spirits can appear as lights beckoning from a precipice and lead him to death, or they may loosen a rock underfoot or above his head.
Active volcanos erupt in fiery display of the mountain’s connection to subterranean worlds, where the dead reside. Mountains hold treasure, minerals and gold that belong to the chthonic beings deep within the earth, who are often very reluctant to part with it.

Huwawa (Mesopotamia)
Huwawa, an ancient guardian demon, was appointed by the Sumerian storm god Enlil to watch over the cedar mountain forest, located in the coastal mountains of Syria. Huwawa appears in The Gilgamesh Epic, the best known story of its day (circa 1600-2000 B.C.E). And the model for much of later western hero literature, written by Akkadian in Old Babylon but based on earlier Sumerian legend. Huwawa is a creature of colossal size. His massive gorgon like face is composed of ropy twisted coils of intestine and can strike terror into the heart of the beholder.
He has a snarling mouth of fire and his breath kills. Some say he is a personified volcano associated with the underworld. Some say he is a storm god. He is a virtually invincible guardian demon whose presence renders the cedar mountain invulnerable.
Dispelling and Disarming:
The chain of tragic events in the narrative of Gilgamesh was set in motion by his arrogant act of killing Huwawa and chopping down sacred trees of cedar mountain. The feat that the hero chose, conquering nature itself, daring to go beyond limits set by gods to claim the wilderness his own, his great resonance in later lore and even in present day concerns.

Tengu (Japan)
The Tengu comprise a class of high-flying demons, probably Chinese in origin, who principally inhabit cedar or pine trees in the mountains areas of Japan. The Tengu are of two main types: the “higher Tengu” has a human form, and wears the red robes of a bishop and a small crown, it has white hair, a red face, and is often seen holding a fan made of feathers, each higher Tengu resides on its own mountain peek. The “inferior Tengu” has small wings and sharp claws on the ends of its fingers and toes. Sometimes they are seen wearing small black hats and clothes made of leaves. They all have large, shining, mischievous eyes. They usually travel in flocks. All Tengu, higher and inferior, have elongated beaklike noses.
The Tengu shares several traits with the Chinese T’ienkou, who is sometimes described as a shooting star and sometimes as a mountain demon in the shape of a dog that came from the sky in fire and thunder. In either version, the Chinese demon has two wings and kidnaps and eats small children, and it can readily shape-shift. Another case cousin of the Japanese Tengu is the Jindu supernatural bird Garuda.
Tengu are generally believed to be the spirts of arrogant or revengeful dead, and are well known for their malicious delight in practical jokes. They tend to prey on Buddhist monks, interrupting their pious work by strapping them to the tops of trees, or by offering them delicious foods that turns out to be excrement. They also can appear as Buddhist monks and lead other monks astray, always in an attempt to stop prayers. They also appear to many travelers who get lost in the mountains.
Like fairies, the Tengu enjoy stealing human children and hiding them from their parents. When and if the children are returned, they’ve usually been reduced to a confused state and never fully regain their senses. At other times the lower Tengu are busy carrying out nasty errands for the higher Tengu. Because all Tengu can endow their followers with supernatural power, the species has attracted a large group of worshipers known as mountain priests, or Yama bushi, who claim to be able to cure diseases and exorcize demons.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Understand the rules: Tengu own all the trees in the mountains and must be propitiated for any lumber taken.

Huldrefolk (Norway)
The Huldrefolk (hidden people) are fairies. They’re invisible, so though populous, are hard to spot. Some say it is their hats that make them invisible, others report that the secret lies on a special coat. Whatever the reason, they are there at all times, living in another dimension, hidden behind a veil of invisible vapor. When, on rare occasions, this veil lifts, the Huldrefolk can be glimpsed. The males closely resemble miniature humans, the female Huldrefolk wears a blue, green or white dress, has a cow like tail and a hollow back.
Dispelling and Disarming:
When building a house, take care never to build on top of a Huldrefolk dwelling. Tap the cornerstone with a stick. The sound can alert the builder to an invisible residence just below. Another method is to sleep one night just outside the potential building site. It is said if sleep is disturbed another plot should be found. If uncertain a possession, such as a hammer or saw, can be left over night on the planned building site. The next day, if the tool is missing, it is said the Huldrefolk have given their sign.

Abatwa (South Africa)
The Abatwa is a Zulu spirit species, considerably smaller than the common fairy, so small that they often hide under blades of glass and sleep in the hills. They live in the mountains and rocky hills, but they have no central village. They are nomadic hunters who follow the game, devour their catch in its entirety, and move onto the next kill. When the Abatwa travel, it is said that they ride upon one horse, sitting from the neck to the tail, one behind another. If they do not find any game on their hunt they will usually devour their communal horse.
Dispelling and Disarming:
The Abatwa are easily offended and quickly enraged. Their most common response is to murder by poison arrow. But if it happens that one meets an Abatwa while journeying through the hills and mountainous rejoins of Africa, the typical encounter would go like this: The Abatwa will ask “from where did you see me?” This is a trick question to which the honest reply “I am seeing you here right now for the very first time” will be fatal. The life saving answer is “See that mountain way back there? I first saw you when I was on that mountain.”

Yuki-Onna (Japan)
Yuki-Onna (Lady of the Snow) can appear as a beautiful, in fact, irresistible, maiden wearing all white, her skin pale, her breath like frost. She also manifests as a white vapor that blows through the crack in the door. Other times she is seen hovering over her victim, a floating misty essence. In all cases, through her glacial lips she sucks the life breath gently but inexorably from her victims’ mouth.
Dispelling and Disarming:
There is to be done in any inevitably fatal encounter with Yuki-Onna during a blizzard. However, when a male traveler attracts a spirits, there are certain things he must know. All supernatural wives come with a condition, which can be any of the following: never speak of her origins, never tell any other human being that she has supernatural powers, never look at her when she is in a transformed state (and always give her privacy and time to transform), or never open the basket she brought with her touch some item she declares forbidden.

Patupairehe (New Zealand)
The Patupairehe are Maori fairies who live in remote mountains and hilltops, places wrapped in dense fog. They look like tall, red haired, exceedingly pale humans, but they are rarely sighted as they move only through the dark or the mist on foggy days. Like many fairies, they consider themselves guardians of the wilderness and all that lives within.
Often the Patupairehe take human lovers, whom they visit late at night. The name Patupairehe are expert flute players and use their musical skills to arouse human women who happen to walk nearby. Those who fall under the spell of the Patupairehe seldom if ever return to their old selves. Albino children are believed to be offspring of such couples.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Not only are the Patupairehe heliophobic, they are afraid of fire, ash and the color red. They are repulsed by food that has been cooked in fire. If tricked, they can teach supernatural skills and be inspiring.

Tommy-Knockers (North America)
The Tommy-Knockers is an American mining species that seems to have originated in Staffordshire, in England, where they were known as just plain Knockers. The Tommy-Knockers stand about two feet high, the size of a three-year-old, and has a disproportionately large head, long beard, and weathered, wrinkled skin. Their arms are miniature and reach nearly to the ground. They wear mining outfits, caps and boots and carry mining gear such as pickaxes. They are usually invisible to the human eye, so it is only by the sound of their tapping, knocking and working in various shafts nearby the human workers that one knows they are present.
They can be helpful or malicious but they are always mischievous. This temperament can be hazardous in mineshafts. The Tommy-Knockers are believed to have originated as ghosts of men who died in the mine in the past. They work like demons all night long.
Dispelling and Disarming:
There’s no getting rid of Tommy-Knockers or their European counterparts. However, it is clear that when they choose to be helpful, one must respect their privacy and keep their presence a secret to avoid fatal accidents.

Kishi (Angola)
The Kishi is a two-faced male hill species. His forward countenance is human in feature and quite attractive. This is the face that tricks female victims. The rear face is hidden by long, thick hair. It has the features of a hyena. Its waiting mouth holds long, sharp teeth, and a jaw so powerful it cannot be pried off its mean by any means
it is the human face of the Kishi that insinuates itself as a potential boyfriend, and in addition the Kishi is a smooth talker, a great raconteur who lures with ease. He often attends village dances, invites his intended meal out to dinner and when the time is right turns his head around and devours her.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Note that the one sister who lived to talk the tale never ate in the land in the demon. She was not seduced by his illusory civilized form and saw the wild carnivore within. When traveling in Angola, one must be as wise as the youngest sister.

Gwyllion (Wales)
The Gwyllion (from the Welsh Gwyll, which denotes gloom and darkness) and female spirits who live in unusually treacherous mountainous areas. They are hag like in appearance and are identified by their distinctive, hair-raising laughter. One notorious Gwyllion is described as an old woman wearing ash colored clothing, an oblong fair-pointed hat, and an apron over her shoulder, and carrying a pot in her hand. She cries “wow up ” as she passes her victims, a signal of distress. Variations of this are “wwlo” or “ww-bub ”
When travelers first lose their way at night, they often come upon the Gwyllion, whom they generally mistake for a kindly old woman who will lead them back on their right path. But after following these malicious spirits for awhile they hear that dreadful cackle, and then it is always much too late.
Dispelling and Disarming:
In bad weather, the Gwyllion might enter a human abode to get warm. During such a visit, the Gwyllion must not be offended or great harm will later come to the family. Clean water must be provided, and, as a courtesy, all metal knives must be hidden.

Mahisha-Asura (India)
Mahisha-Asura is one of the epic demons of Hinduism and is found in the Markandeya Purana ©. 300 B.C.E.-500 C.E.). His basic form is of a buffalo, but he is a champion shape-shifter who has been seen as lion, elephant, human and amazingly, has become a million multiples of himself. This instantaneous, illusory cloning once created a nearly invincible army that set all the gods into hiding for awhile. Mahisha-Asura was born of a mother buffalo (Mahisha) and father demon (Asura). The water buffalo, known for its extraordinary lust, stupidity, sloth and mud-bathing indolence, gave Mahisha his attributes, and his father, unusually malevolent, contributed his disposition. The buffalo is also seen as a symbol of death.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Order was restored to the universe in this cosmic myth by the goddess who saw through all the illusory forms of the brutal tyrant Mahisha-Asura, one of the most powerful mythic evil forces of Hinduism.

Yunwi Djunsti (North America)
The Yunwi Djunsti, or “Little People” of the Cherokee is a fairy species, about two feet tall with long dark hair that reaches the ground. They are said to wear white clothes but tend to be invisible to the naked eye. Other than their size, supernatural status and invisibility, they are very much like the Cherokee themselves: they speak the same language, sing similar songs, and even design their social structure in an identical manner.
There are dour varieties of Yunwi Djunsti. One kind lives in the rocky cliffs and hard-to-reach craggy mountainside. They make their homes in the rocks, sometimes with many chambers and always with well swept floors. The second variety makes their homes outdoors in rhododendron patches. The third live in scrub brush. The fourth reside out in the open. The four varieties differ in levels of malevolence. The Little People in the open air and scrub brush are said to be the unusually mean, while the other two varieties can sometimes be helpful in treated nicely.
Ordinary humans rarely see the Yunwi Djunsti. It is considered bad luck to see them and is always a portent of death. However, twins can see them and frequently speak with them.
Dispelling and Disarming:
It is bad enough to see any Little People but far worse to speak about it. Often it is after the telling that the victim dies. It is usually fatal to enter their homes and harmful to disturb their privacy.

Duergar (Great Britain)
The Duergar is a populous species of solitary fairy that leads travelers astray by means of a flickering torch. He stands about one foot tall, wears a lambskin coat, moleskin shoes and as a hat a piece of green moss stuck with a large feather. This is a malicious creature who believes the hills are his alone, and wants only to cause harm, mischief or death to trespassing human beings.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Travelers are always in great danger when hiking alone and the best Duergar protection is to know his habits. Suspended action while waiting for daylight is a most effective although difficult technique to master.

Mountain Fairies (China)
Mountain Fairies are dainty, beautiful and irresistible. Popular tales abound of travelers to the mountain terrain who came upon a bevy of maidens and are invited to stay. Fed on hemp, and quite blissful, the remain with the fairies for what feels like a short week. When they begin to grow bored with vacation and asked to return home the fairies usually release them readily.
China has numerous fairies in all its mountains, flitting like butterflies. The mountains are a habitat where reality shifts and worlds appear and vanish like clouds. Some of these fairies are seen as shen, spirits of nature, and they embody sunshine, clouds, rain, mist, and delicately imbue all these phenomena.
China has fire sacred mountains: Mount Tai, of the East; Mount Hua, of the West; Mount Heng, of the North; Mount Seng, of the Center; and Mount Heng of the South. It also has Mount Kunlun, a cosmic mountain. China has three contributing spiritual traditions that look at mountains in different ways. To the Confucian, the mountain is an image of the Emperor, the unmoving highest ruler; the Buddhist, the mountain is a habitat in which to gain enlightenment and from which to view emptiness, to the Taoist it is an unworldly refuge and a place of harmony, and in later Taoist sources it is the ultimate site to attain the goal of immortality.
Dispelling and Disarming:
To attain such powers takes a human life time of hardship, ascetic practice, in the heights of the unworldly isolated mountains. Despite the charm of the tales and the shen, such dimensions are not for beginners.

Akvan (Ancient Persia)
Akvan “Evil Mind” is an important Persian div with unlimited powers and incredible strength. He has the typical demonic wide mouth, fangs and horns. He wears a traditional short skirt, has not quite hidden tail flashing warning as to his nature, and has curved clawlike toenails on his wide flat feet.
Dispelling and Disarming:
All demons have some area of weakness or fatal flaw and it is important to know it. In the cause of Div Akvan, his reputation for always doing the opposite of what if requested is a life saver. If he were more intelligent he might vary his routine but his slowness allows the traveler to trick him every time.

Yaksas (Nepal)
The Yaksas is a species of hirsute, wide-mouthed, fanged, and horned demons whose kingdom is called Kamrup. The epic story if Karumamaya, the Buddhist god of compassion and in Depal, also the god of rain and grain, is related annually by the Newars of Nepal at the chariot festival of Bungadya. In the tale, Karunamaya must be wrestled from the land of Yaksas to whom he has been born at the youngest of five hundred sons known as Lokanatha.
Dispelling and Disarming:
It should be noted that in the story of Bungadyo, the successful wrestling of the Buddhist god of companion, who is known by many names, from the midst of a demonic realm was possible because it was done for unselfish purpose and carried out with compassion.

The White Monkey (China)
The White Monkey, a remarkable twin of the Tikoloshe of South Africa, is a shen denizen of the mountains of China. He is huge and malevolent, and like many mountain demons, he lives in a cavern or cave. The White Monkey’s primary interest is stealing women. He has the advantage of being taller than the South African species and virtually unstoppable.
Dispelling and Disarming:
It is said that fire crackers are effective in routing this species and thus perhaps averting an incident.

Forest
The forest, just a step beyond the boundaries of civilization, holds danger and mystery, wild animals that lurk in the thickets and secret paths that lead to invisible hosts. Sylvan spirits any Myriad forms of fertile life breathe as trunks creak and a constant rustle, perhaps only the wind, alerts the travelers to the fact he is never alone.
Hunters and cowherds on the edge of the woods since antiquity have often encountered demonic guardian species and forest fairies who play under toad stools and ferns. Pliny described trees that speak. In Asia blood has been seen oozing from felled trees, and in many cultures trees are considered either deities or abodes of demons. Night turns the darkness of the woods into the roof of the underworld and as the demons emerge, the air becomes thick with them.
The forest, which teems with life, vital to humankind, can never be cultivated. Cut it down and the consequences are soon fatal. Wander in it and risk the danger of getting eternally lost or devoured. The edge of the forest is always the boundary between the wild and the domesticated, the animal and the human community. It holds it genius loci, who many appear as demonic guardian species of wilderness and wild creatures and attack trespassing hunters, mischievous fairies who sometimes visit nearby villages, and the many huge man eating species that are an ever-present danger to the children and domestic animals of the villages.

Pan (Greece)
Pan (“all”, “everything”), the son of Hermes and Anymph of Arcadia, is one of the world’s ancient spirits, a god of woods and pastures, a guardian of flocks and of shepherds who gave him offerings of milk, honey and lamb. He is immediately recognizable by his fawn-skin coat, his ruddy complexion, his goat ears, horns, beard, legs and hooves. He carries a curved shepherd’s staff, and plays his pipes.
Pan is closely linked with the Satyrs, a rough, shaggy goat like species with demonical natures. Associated with continuous orgies. Both Pan and the Satyrs are associated with the pagan god Dionysus and the bacchanalia. These spirits of excess resemble the goat like shedim and seirim (demons shunned by the Ancient Jews) and contribute to the late image of the Christian’s horned, hirsute, goat-hoofed Devil. Pan is also linked to the Italian Faunus, a mischievous woodland spirit associated with fertility from Asia Minor whose symbol was the phallus. Altogether Pan, a powerful pagan spirit, us profoundly connected to the fecundity of both the woods and population.

Windigo (Canada)
The Algonkian Windigo (or Wittiko) is a seasonal, subarctic, man-eating species. During the winter moons when food is scarce, there is a fear of the creature. With Cadaverous body and a face out of an Edvard Munch portrait, highlighted with horrid glaring eyes, the Windigo have been in close proximity to them have experienced chills and the sense that their own hearts were freezing over.
The Windigo use trees as their snowshoes and cover vast distances in a single step. As they travel from victim to victim, blizzards accompany them. Naked and gaunt, the entire species stalks the forests of the north in search of human flesh, lurking silently in the shadows of trees, tall as the old timbers themselves.
A Windigo has a scream that paralyzes its intended meal so that it cannot escape. Once it is upon its prey, a Windigo rips out vital organs in seconds. When sated, packs of Windigo have been seen playing catch with human skulls. It is a remorseless beast that will devour its own family. In the land of the Cree and Ojibwa, the Windigo are believed to have once been normal human beings who have become possessed cannibals. The Windigo can infect the human, and there in lies the unique power suggested in the double meaning of it’s mane. The root word is Algonkian for both “evil spirit” and “cannibal”, so Windigo describes both a demon and a way of acting like one. Any person possessed by this cannibal spirit has literally become a Windigo and is probably incurable. Some people choose this transformation, others happen upon it. The later cases are caused by being bitten, by dreaming of the Windigo or by being involuntary transformed by a malevolent sorcerer.
Voluntary Windigo are individuals who go into the forest, fast for several days, and offer their flesh freely to the species. A Windigo may adopt such a person as its own child. The possessed human grows a heart of ice, becomes notably hirsute, has a craving for raw human flesh, and behaves like the demon itself, although he never attains the full height of the supernatural being.
The earliest sightings of this species are reported by Jesuit missionaries in the 1600s. The Hudson Bat company diaries of the 1700s mention the species quite often.
Dispelling and Disarming:
The only known way to avert Windigo possession is to throw excrement at the creature. This confuses it enough for a small window of escape. If that method doesn’t work, the next choice is to go immediately to a local shaman. If he cannot help, the last resort is to kill the possessed person, cut the body into pieces, and burn it to kill the spirit so that it does not infect others. Some say a silver bullet can also be affective.

Kuru-Pira (Brazil)
The Kuru-Pira, a guardian species of the Desana people, also known as the boraro because of his distinctive cry, has red eyes that glow like burning embers and jaguar like fangs. His ears stand erect. He is tall, of human shape with a hairy chest and huge, pendulous genitals. He as no knee joints and thus has difficulty getting up if he falls.
The Kuru-Pira can be immediately recognized by his oversized long feet, which always face the wrong way. His heels are in front and his toes face the rear. Kuru-Pira feet are fashioned to deceive: they point in the direction that the creature has just come from, leading victims directly into his path as they try to avoid him.
Dispelling and Disarming:
The Kuru-Pira can sometimes be appeased with tobacco offerings. Travelers in Brazil report that when they place their own hand in the foot print of the demon, its legs will stiffen and it will fall. As with mange ogre types, the weakness is in their knees.

Bori (West Africa)
The Bori is a populous species of spirits who reside in various habitats of the Hausa people in West Africa. The forest Bori is often sighted in human form with hoofed feet. However, Bori tend to shape-shift. They can terrify people by walking around headless or slither by like giant pythons, and appear occasionally in homes as a husband or a sister, play-acting apparently just for fun, until the real human walks in. Most people report that a Bori will leave a footprint in ashes like a rooster, which is the most fool proof way of discovering an imposter table companion. If a Bori is sighted in a group of average human beings, he will seem slightly weird and have oddly unfocused, dreamy eyes.
The forest Bori is never vicious unless offended, and with continual worship and sacrifice, it can be placated. However, a careless act, such as spitting or throwing water on a hot fire and causing a spark to fly into an invisible Bori, will aggravate him.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Iron repels Bori, so powerfully that even saying the word iron a few times drive them off.
Wood-Wives and Skoggra (Germany and Sweeden)
The Wood-Wives, a fairy species, can be found in old forests and dense groves. Petite and beautifully dressed, with long claws, they are often accompanied by violent whirlwinds. So intricately connected to the woods are these spirits that it is said that if a branch is twisted until the bark comes off, one Wood-Wife dies in the forest.
Hunters are humans most at risk of attack by the Wood-Wives. Like many ancient nature spirits, Wood-Wives abhor human hubbub: Churches with their loud bells, and all destructive machinery in the forest, threatens their very existence.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Herbs such as red verbena and St. John’s Wort can be used liberally to keep these forest spirits at a distance. Anything red, being said to be the color of the devil, repels. Steel and iron are often carried in the pocket to keep fairies away.

Rakshasas (India)
The Rakshasas (Night Wanderers) is a species of Asuras (Hindu demons) who inhabit the forest of Lanka and appear in every conceivable shape and form but tend to extremes in height-they are either unusually tall or elfin. Many Rakshasas have pot bellies and animal heads-elephant, horse, and snake heads being the most prevalent-with fang like, razor-sharp, protruding teeth. Some are beautiful. According to other reports, their eyes flame and their tongues hang down at great lengths and they have horns. Rakshasas sometimes appear in human form, and they generally have red hair, huge eyes, wide mouths that go virtually from ear to ear, and a single arm, eye or leg-or perhaps three of each, never the usual two.
Rakshasas have been known to devour horses and human beings, inhabit and reanimate corpses, and shape-shift into birds-vultures and owls, particularly-and, less frequently, dogs, deer, and even men and beautiful seductive women. One type of Rahshasas, known as Pisacas, dwell in the town’s water supply and can make people waste away.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Fire is powerful effective in Pisacas control. Rakshasas generally maintain a state of invisibility but are known to be found at places of worship, where they attempt to disrupt prayer, as this practice greatly upsets them; thus prayer is useful in driving them off.

Ravana (India)
Ravana, King of all Rakshasas, has ten heads, twenty arms, and fiercely burning eyes. Ravana is an almost invulnerable champion shape shifter, able to take forms as diverse as a rock, a corpse, and a puff of smoke. Ravana can break mountains in two with his bare hands and can create storms at sea. He is known best for his on going battle with Rama, the god incarnate hero of the Hindu epic, Ramayana.

Leshii (Russia)
The Leshii (les is “forest” in Russian) is a guardian species that is generally thought to be the genius loci of the forest-an ancient spirit and a tricky shape-shifter. The Leshii have been seen as a tall man covered from head to foot with black hair, worn uncombed and wild. He has also been seen with cloven hoofed feet, a tail, small horns (like the devil), carrying a club or whip, indicating his status as master of the forest and all animals within it. He will occasionally take the shape of a bear, a bird, or more commonly a wolf, but sometimes a friend or even a mushroom. When the Leshii appears as an ordinary peasant his shoes will be always worn on the wrong feet. And his eyes will glow.
The Leshii is endlessly mischievous. He removes sign posts. He calls out to travelers in familiar voices and lures them into unknown parts of the forest until they are hopeless lost.
Dispelling and Disarming:
When encountering the Leshii in the Russian woods, one must immediately turn all clothing inside out. Put the left shoe on the right and the right shoe on the left. This usually outsmarts the species.

Eloko (Zaire)
The Eloko is a people-eating dwarf of the NKundo who lives in hollow trees in the dense rain forest of the central Zaire. The Eloko is hairless but is covered with a coat of grass that grows over his face and body; his clothing is made of leaves. Eloko eyes are like fire. They have snouts, clawed fingers, and although very small, their jaws open wide enough to consume an entire human being. Their remarkable power is in their music. The Eloko bewitches it’s victims by ringing tiny magical bells while walking-camouflaged- through the forest. The bell is also associated with the god of death. The Eloko may have originated as one of his retinue.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Although certain amulets and fetishes may avert the spell of the Eloko, only professional hunters with magic powers can safely travel through the forest.

Oni (Japan)
The Oni is a splendid species, and probably the most popular in Japan. His body is pink or blue, his face basically human but grotesquely flat, with a mouth that runs ear to ear and a third eye. He has three toes and three fingers on each hand. The fingers and tones end in talons. He often walks, but he can fly and he has horns. Oni range in size but maintain these features. Excessive in their behavior, all Oni drink and eat much, randomly abduct young women, and are revoltingly uncouth. These demons are always present when disaster strikes, and are also associated with disease. They bear the souls of the wicked to the underworld. On the last day of the year a special ceremony called the Oni-Yarahi is held to expel the Oni and the misfortune that they represent from the coming year.
Disarming and Dispelling:
Despite their great powers, they are so preoccupied with satisfying excessive bodily needs that their intelligence is diminished. They remain vulnerable to human trickery and ingenuity.

Kumbhakarna (India)
Kumbhakarna, the glutenous Rakshasas brother of Ravana, standing 420,000 meters high, is the tallest known demon in the world. His colossal statue alone would have made him invincible, but fortunately for humankind when Kumbhakarna opened his mouth to ask for a boon from Brahma, he was tongue-tied midsentence by a goddess. All he could manage to say was: “I want...to sleep.” All the gods breathed a sigh of relief and Brahma happily agreed to his request. He arranged for the mighty Kumbhakarna to sleep for six months as a stretch and awaken for only one day at a time. Whenever Kumbhakarna awakes, he is naturally ravenous. Like a cosmic bear who has been hibernating the demon eats everybody and everything anywhere in his neighborhood. He can eat a city’s supply of food in a gulp along with most of it’s citizens. His drinking habits consume the produce of thousands of vineyards.
Kayeri (South America)
The Kayeri is a seasonal species of the Cuiva people, best observed in the rainy months and generally dormant in sunshine. It wears a blue-green hat, sometimes yellow, and when in the shape of a human male is quite tall and strong and has two wives. Kayeri live under the ground in deep caves and rise to the earth’s surface through the holes made by ants. All mushrooms in the forest are aspects of Kayeri, as are ficus tendrils, the agouti and the Unkuaji plant.
Kayeri usually can be found hanging about the base of tall trees. They eat nothing but cows, which they chase at night through the fields. When farmer complain of missing cows, it is said that a Kayeri has taken them home to eat under the earth with his two wives.
Dispelling and Disarming:
Beware the Kayeri in rainy season, as the father told his daughters. Be alert whenever ant holes seem conspicuously abundant, and as a weapon, carry a special arrow tipped with bone.

Dodo (Ghana)
The Dodo is a rapacious male species of the Hausa people that hides in trees waiting to pounce on unsuspecting forest travelers. He can take any shape, but is often sighted as a snake, or an animal with a keen sense of smell, sometimes even a giant covered with long hair. He is always ravenously hungry for human flesh. Some believe the Dodo is the spirit of a dead man who vengefully prowls the forest grubbing living mortals.
Dispelling and disarming:
The only two things that can stop a Dodo are running water, which it cannot cross. And a deus ex machina like the one the bride produced.

Shedim (Judaism)
The Shedim is a hairy and horned wild species of Jewish demons. They are said in the Talmud to eat and drink like human beings and have basically human features, but with lolling tongues and wide mouths. The Shedim are referred to in the Bible as unclean spirits and were later relegated in folklore to woods and various other uninhabited places.
Dispelling and disarming:
Usually spitting three times will drive away the Shedim, and also makes a gesture known as “to fig” (bending the thumb and inserting it between index and second finger, then making a fist) will powerfully repel and infuriate the Shedim. Both Shedim and Oni usually show mericful vulnerability to human trickery.

Kitsune (Japan)
The Kitsune are wild fox demons known to do terrible mischief to possess humans and to take their shapes. In fact, the Kitsune is rarely seen in its original shape, but often appears as a bewitching young woman. It shape-shifts by a stroke of its fire-shooting tail. It then puts on a human skull, turns around and bows to the Big Dipper. If its skull does not fall off, it turns into a beautiful maiden, its most successful form. If it a wanton animal and will in time deplete the energy of its victim and go onto the next. The Kitsune cause by way of China, where it is called Huli Jing and is considered a lewd, canny supernatural creature capable of great damage. Long ago some mischief makers went around cutting off women’s hair at night. This act was attributed to the Kitsune, and from then on foxes were believed to cut women’s hair when assuming their shape perhaps as some sort of pledge. They are also associated with shaving men’s heads as pranks.

Kabhanda (India)
Kabhanda is a Rakshasa of uncommon appearance in the Hindu epic Ramayana. Due to a fight with the god Indra, he was dealt such a terrible blow that his head was driven down into his torso. In the same battle Indra took another swipe and cut off his legs. So Kabhanda appears as an enormous, barrel shaped, hair-covered entity. He has eight arms, each one mile in length, and he walks around on them in spider fashion. His face is located mid-torso, where his wide, fanged, typical Rakshasa mouth grimaces from his belly, and his one eye stares menacingly from mid-chest. His body ends at his shoulders and he has no neck.
Dispelling and Disarming:
This transformation is unusual in its immediately, but it expresses the potential for good inherent in many supernatural demonic spirits and is typical of many Hindu demons who can sense out a lifetime as Asuras warring with gods and then in another become gods warring with demons.

Desert
The desert is a vast, inhospitable territory, traditionally referred to as wasteland or wilderness with no fixed sign posts, and frequent mirages that make for difficult traveling. Dunes eerily shift, sculpting a transient landscape where past and present can be buried in a sudden sandstorm. It is a habitat of extremes where space and time as we know it are erased; map and compass are often useless, and the human traveler feels awe, intense dread and amazement.
Desert spirits are as plentiful as grains of sand and have lived through the millennia without any regard for humankind. They imbue each rock and plant of this archaic strata. Many were the first beings, here long before people, or good and evil, and they continue in a nondual universe of their own.

Surem (Sonovan Desert)
The Surem, about three feet in height, are considered to be the precursors of the Yaqui people. The Surem were nomads who did not know sickness or death and who could communicate with animals and plants, with which they lived peacefully in the wilds. The little people moved about and carried a lake with them, rolled up like a carpet, and whenever they needed water or fish, they would unroll the lake and fish in it. The time during which they lived this way was called the Yoania: an ancient, nondual, unitary world when all being was psychically interconnected, an enchanted time before the Spanish came, a time that preceded Christianity.
The Surem can still be found today living in a concealed parallel universe that remains in the Yoania, an “uncivilized” world that exists in wilderness, in wastelands, and in the sacred tall of the Talking Tree, which is still told at certain festivals.
D&D:
Seekers can travel to the distant Surem places to receive these powers, but not without dangerous consequences for those who find them.

Set (Sahara Desert)
Set, called Typhon by the Greeks, is one of the most ancient and powerful Egyptian deities. He has a tough, camel-like profile, a reddish complexion, squared upright ears, and ramrod straight posture.
Set represented the negative aspect of the sun, and over the millennia came to the stand for all forces of moral and physical darkness. Ra, the sun god, represented by Osiris, the father, and Horus (his son and symbol of the rising son), often appears with Set, expressing the double nature of the deity. In ancient Egypt Set grew to be known primarily as the destructive force of the southern sun, whose deadly rays create unbearable heat and drought that turn earth into uninhabitable stony wasteland.
Set was also considered the thief of the rays of the beneficial sun, so the setting sun was under his control, as was the part of the year from the summer solstice to the winter solstice when the rays of the sun are weakest and crops cannot grow. He was also the agent of earthquakes, storms, and other natural disasters that upset the natural order of things. Set was also a god of war.
All Egyptian gods and demons have body-double animals. Set representative were the crocodile, hippopotamus, pig, tortoise, serpent, antelope and turtle. He was also associated with the ass. Some of these animals were notably sacred, with shrines in ancient Egypt, and the powers attributed to them were a mix of good and evil.

Azazel (Judean Wilderness)
Azazel was king of the seirim, an ancient species of goat like spirits. Although some say “Azazel” was simply the name of a place near Jerusalem, others say that it referred to an archdemon who dwelled in the desert. In ancient Jewish custom, on the day of atonement, two goats were brought to the tabernacle. One goat was sacrificed for Yehweh, the other was laden with the sins of the people and taken to the wilderness for Azazel.

Iblis (Arabian Desert)
Iblis, the spirit of doubt, is a fallen angel of Islam, a powerful subversive spirit, and the chief of all djinn, with an army of marid, a vicious and powerful class of djinn. He is closely related to Azazel.

Djinn (Arabian Desert)
Djinn, an ancient Islamic, invisible, illusion-casting species who live for centuries, can manifest in any form and travel anywhere instantly. Like the Greek daimon, they are spirits of an intermediate mature between humans and angels. It is said in the Q’uran that they are an ancient species who were created before humankind from smokeless fire. The Djinn have no bodies of their own but are masters of illusory disguise. However, because the Djinn are made of fire, when they manifest in human form they have flaming eyes, which are set vertically in the head, not horizontally as human eyes are. Aside from human form, certain Djinn also appear in the shape of black dogs or snakes or toads or black cats. They are considered the cause of violent sandstorms, whirlwinds, and shooting stars.
D&D:
Since all Djinn are invisible and plentiful as sand, they are considered to be always present and listening-reputedly they know every language- so care must be taken when discussing them. One must never inadvertently injure them by throwing water on a fire-they often rest in ashes. A stone thrown in the desert may injure some invisible Djinn offspring and force retaliation.

Shaitan (Arabian Desert)
The Shaitan (Satan) is a type of djinni created of fire by Allah. While djinn behavior can be moderate or mischievous and members of the species have even converted and become good, the Shaitan is invariably evil. Iblis is the king of the Shaitan, humankind into sin by temptation. They manage this by creating illusions in the minds of humankind-enthralling visions of pleasures to be had by committing various sins- and they are endlessly imaginative.
The Shaitan eat dirt and excrement and have a notable a version to water. If one forgets to wash after supper and goes to bed with unclean hands, they may be licked to bloody stumps by morning. Forgetting morning ablutions results in unclean tempting thoughts sent by the Shaitans throughout the day. Many of the species look exactly like human beings, although they can shape-shift, into animals or inhabit corpses. Some possess people. Some tempt people to do evil. Some take the shape of seductive women to lure travelers.
D&D:
Most important is the species’ a version to fresh water, which will stop them from all activity. The bone of a hare also works against them. A white cock will keep the Shaitan away.

Ghoul (Arabian Desert)
Ghoul (destroyer) is the most malicious species. He is often sighted with matted shaggy hair that hangs over his eyes, and he shape-shifts endlessly, but in all forms maintains hooves as feet. The Ghouls commonly transform to ox, camel or hose and often appear in human form. A Ghoul speciality is singly like a siren, so sweetly the traveler will be lured to their camp, and then, once gotten alone, the Ghoul will show its claws, rip apart its prey and devour it whole. However he can be generous if treated well.
D&D:
It is said that if one loosens the belt of one’s trousers, the Ghoul will stay away. A Ghoul can be killed in one blow. But beware: a second blow will bring it back to life.

Devalpa (Arabian Desert)
The Devalpa usually appears as innocent, decrepit old man who stands weary and sighing at the edge of a road. As people pass by, he pleads to be taken on their shoulders. If anybody is good enough to pick hum up, he will shape-shift immediately. Yards of snakelike legs erupt from his scrawny abdomen and wrap around the bearer.
D&D:
Wine is the downfall of many demons. Their excessive nature always causes them to imbibe too much and fall into an unconscious stupor.

Mimi (Arnhem Land, Australia)
The Mimi are an ancient family of Aboriginal fairylike spirits who have concealed themselves within rocks in the Arnhem Land plateau of Australia for over ten thousand years. The Mimi are described as having such extraordinary thin and elongated bodies that they cannot venture out on windy days because the wind would cause them to break in half. Hunting is reserved for still days. The tall, fragile beings wear bunches of leaves to cover their genitals. Never seen by modern travelers, they were glimpsed by aboriginal medicine men long ago when people could still see spirits.
D&D:
Humankind has learned many creative and healing arts from the Mimi.

St. Anthony’s Demons (Sahara Desert)
St. Anthony’s Demons are some of the most illustrious and illustrated of the many desert species. They appear in every imaginable hostile animal shape.
D&D:
Noise and friendly laughter are traditional demonic repellents.

Palis (Arabian Desert)
The Palis is a potentially deadly foot-licker species that attacks its victims at night when they’re sleeping in the desert. He likes the soles of their feet until their blood is gone. There is no known description of the species’ appearance.
D&D:
Like many of these single-minded species, the Palis hasn’t an ounce of intelligence and can be easily tricked.

Mamu (Great Sandy Desert, Australia)
The Mamu (sometimes called Gugur) are malevolent man-eating demons of the aboriginal people who roam the desert. The Mamu have been around since ancient times. They are adept shape-shifters and have been sighted as “friends”. Fellow travelers, small birds, and even inanimate objects. They are described as very tall, with huge pointed heads and bloody fanged teeth. The males carry large clubs with which they strike their victims.
D&D:
Dogs can sense when Mamu are nearby and will bark loudly. A circle of fire, many companions, and dogs barking will keep this desert demon away.

Ahriman (Iranian Desert)
Ahriman, spirit of the destruction, head of the evil empire and all the daevas (“demons” in Persian lore), was a primordial spirit who arose as the independent counter force of Abura-Mazda, who in the religion of ancient Persia was the eternal god, the wise lord and spirit of good. The realm of Ahriman is the desolate wasteland of the desert, although he is also seen sometimes in hell.
D&D:
When dealing with demonic forces of this order, and with the attributes of evil so clearly defined, the traveler is asked to choose.

Namarrgon (Australia)
Namarrgon or Mamaragan (lightning man) is an ancient, volatile, and belligerent aboriginal spirit who lives in Arnhem land.

Ho’ok (Sonoran Desert)
Ho’ok is a legendary demon of the Tohono O’odham (The Desert People). She was human in appearance, all but for her hands and feet, which are animal claws. The Ho’ok was a fierce man-eater who carried off small children and babies, which she killed and ate. She lived in a cave in the land of the Tohono O’Odham, whose center is the Baboquivari Mountain, where their creator and elder brother I’itoi lives and whose vast range is millions of acres of desert extending down into Sonora from what is now called Tucson.

Satan (Negev)
Satan, a fallen angel, is also known as Lucifer, Samuel, Asmodeus, Mephistopheles, the devil, the adversary or legion.

Domicile
Perhaps because the domicile was, and in many cultures still is, the site of child birth, marriage and death-the most important events in the human journey, are surrounded with ceremony and spirits good and evil- or perhaps because the foundation of each new home rests on ancient spirits; own subterranean abodes, or perhaps for reasons known only to the mysterious sprits, demons and fairies are always closer than the neighbors. The home is crowded with spirits. Each must be approached with caution, amulet, talisman, or sometimes a professional exorcist.

Croucher (Babylonia)
The Croucher, an entrance demon, is one of the invisible rabisu (the ones that lie in wait), a species that makes it presence so deeply felt that it instantly causes the hair of any mortal to stand on end. This is how all rabisu are depicted, by their effect, so hair-raising as to be indescribable. We can only claim to represent them by the words and images in all amulets, talismans and incantations used against them.
D&D:
Shutting the door works against some demons but imprisons others. They should always have a way out.

Asmodeus (Judaism)
Asmodeus (Ashmedai in Hebrew, meaning “evil spirit) is the undisputed king of the demons of Hebrew lore. He has three heads that face different directions. One is the head of a bull, the second the heads of a ram and the third the head of an ogre. He has the legs and feet of a cock and he rides a fire-breathing lion. All of these animals are associated with lust, which is his speciality. His other power areas are wrath and revenge. He wreaks havoc in households and produces enmity between man and wife. His favorite place is the bedroom.
D&D:
If Asmodeus is found in the bedroom, the heart and liver of a special fish can be placed in an incense-burner and roasted for the terrible aroma. The type of fish is known only to angels, so the next best thing is ant pungent-smelling herb, such as garlic, or strong-smelling smoke from incense-or burning tar, which is always an effective repellant.

Changing Bear Maiden (North American, Navajo)
Changing Bear Maiden, the quint essential demonic female of the Navajo, is first glimpsed as a model housekeeper. She is a gentle, beautiful virgin, an orphan, who can be seen in the kitchen preparing meals for her twelve good brothers. When next seen, she is filled with wrath and the spirit of revenge and has shape-shifting into a lethal she-bear.
D&D:
It is the youngest brother, who, with innocense, courage, and unselfishness, acts as hero and finally transmutes the body parts of the destroyed demoness into useful and nurturing animal and vegetable life.

Domovoi (Russia)
The Domovoi (dom means “house”), like the genius loci of the Greeks, is considered a guardian spirit, and is referred to as “grandfather” behind his back. Shy, and not given to public appearances, the Domovoi is rarely seen but is heard nightly in odd groans and creaks.
D&D:
The Domovoi is considered with the usual ambivalence towards such powers. His goodwill and protection is sought, however, so he is never averted or dispelled but can be disarmed by offerings of Kasha, tobacco and juniper.

Hiranyakshipu (India)
Hiranyakashipu is a power cosmic Hindu Asura (demon) of the threshold, which is the sole place “not inside and not outside”, where he is vulnerable. He is huge, horned and had the demonic appearance of a Rakshasa with large animal ears, clawed feet, and a tail.

Lilith (Judaism)
Lilith is the most important Jewish femme fatale of the succubus species and the only spirit of her gender referred to in the bible.
D&D:
In ancient Aramaic charm used against Lilith, a writ of divorce is served on her, and she is commanded to go forth stripped.

Changelings (Great Britain)
Changelings are fairies, often described as pale, big-headed, mentally retarded, or deformed human babies. In actuality they are not humans at all. In order for fairies to successfully steal babies and take them down to the subterranean Fairyland, they must leave in the crib either carved wooden substitutes or elderly, feeble, washed-up fairies who pretend to be human infants. Especially at risk of being stolen are those babies not yet named or baptized, and all those left alone and unguarded.
D&D:
To guard a baby against fairies in the Scottish Highlands, whiskey mixed with earth was fed to the baby as its first food. Metal was also used to ward off fairies, such as hanging iron crosses, scissors, and knives around the crib, pins stuck in the infant’s clothing or laying the father’s trousers across the cradle, or surrounding it with a circle of fire.

Pazuzu (Babylonia)
Pazuzu is a hybrid creature, with the feet of an eagle, the paws of a lion, the head of a dog, the tail of a scorpion, and four wings. Half his head is skinless and the skull is exposed. He has a deathlike grimace. Pazuzu, or rather the image of him, would be found perched in the window of any ancient home, facing outward.
D&D:
The use to terrifying demonic images at the door and in the window to advert species is used to this day in China, where mirrors on the roof are used to deflect evil spirits who try to perch there.

Isitwalandcengce (South Africa)
Isitwalandcengce (Basket Bearer), a Zulu spirit, is much larger than most domicile species. He resembles a hyena, but has an extremely wide head, shaped rather like a basket. The Basket Bearer lurks about near the house waiting for women and children to return from the market with meat. Typically, the Isitwalandcengce snatches the meat and hurls the child into the basket-shaped head for a later meal. It is believed that the basket bearer enjoys human brain. He arrives at this delicacy much like a seagull: he throws his victims onto rocks to break the skull open, and leaves the other body parts behind.
D&D:
Many demonic species can be easily outwitted by Homo Sapiens, and often he overcome entirely by tricks that wouldn’t fool a human child.

Liderc (Hungary)
The Liderc appears in three striking variations: a flickering light, a demonic household helper, or an incubus. In its ignis fatuus form it is a Lidercfeny, which is often a death portent seen shining mysteriously just over the roof of the household that will be stuck. Liderc, called a mitmitke, appears as a featherless chicken.
D&D:
To stop a Liderc lover from entering via the bedroom door, one can tie a door handle with a cord used to hold up trousers. This makes it impossible for him to enter.

Al (Armenia)
The Al is a species of terrifying half-human, half-animal creature with brass fingernails, long snakelike hair, a fiery single eye, iron teeth, and the tusks of a wild boar. Th Al carries iron scissors. Whenever it wears a pointed hat covered with small bells, it becomes completely invisible. Als live in damp places like the stable or sandy wet areas on the road or unclean corners of the house. But their awful deeds are done in the nursery.
D&D:
To keep the Als away, one must put many iron utensils, pots, knives and other objects all around one’s body.

Fox Fairy (China)
The Fox Fairy (Huli Jing) is considered highly dangerous and held in awe. It was believed to be the shen (spirit) of the dead and has been seen rising from graves. The Fox Fairy often shape-shifts into a tempting, wicked young woman , or an old man or scholar. In fact, the Female Fox Fairy has an affinity for scholars and will attempt to seduce them whenever possible. The Fox Fairy is after the vital essence of its human lover during orgasm, and will steal it away. Lovers eventually become consumptive and waste away to nothing. The Fox Fairy moves on.
D&D:
Burning paper charms against the Fox Fairy, and then putting the ashes into tea and drinking it, may help.

Mare (Norway)
The Norwegian Mare is a female shape-shifter who visits her sleeping victims (usually men) and torments them while they sleep. The Mare can fit herself through a keyhole in a door, a crack in a wall, or blow through an open window. She can be beautiful or ugly, a dwarf or a giant. Most often, though, she takes the form of an animal, most commonly a horse. In Germany she is the Mahr, in Danish, Mare, in America the Nightmare is her descendant.
D&D:
To protect oneself against the Mare, one should never sleep with an open mouth. It is believed that if a Mare can count a person’s teeth, he will surely die.

Kitchen Fairies (China)
Kitchen Fairies are a large, industrious, invisible population and since they cast no shadows they can be accounted for only by the unusual amount of work they accomplish for their owners. They obsessively sweep and dust, so it is very obvious whose house is inhabited and whose is not.
D&D:
Because Kitchen Fairies are said to live in Kitchen pots, it is a custom to leave a small amount of water in each to discourage them from setting up house.

Fair Lady (Hungary)
The Fair Lady is one of the malevolent fairies so powerful as to be seen in many shapes: a beautiful woman, sometimes naked, a horse, a long-haired woman in a white dress looking like a common housewife. She never travels far from home. She is often seen under the eaves of the house-always a dangerous place- and other times she’ll show up in the stable. She weaves dangerous spells that can leave a person struck dumb or worse.
D&D:
Eaves must be avoided. The place under the eaves has been a notable hangout for malevolent spirits since ancient times.

Nisse (Norway)
The Nisse is a species of fairy so minute that he can hide away anywhere, or vanish altogether. He has a gray or white beard, simple gray clothing, and a pointed red hat. His body is covered in thick wooly hair. He has an exceptionally large lower lip and no thumbs. He is considered rather ugly.
D&D:
The only sure way to get rid of a Nisse is to give him a new set of clothes. He will leave immediately.

Psyche
The terrain of Psyche is understood differently by various traditions to be soul, self, mind, collective conscious. For the purposes of the Guide, it is the abode of those species who actually inhabit the human being and use that living person as an instrument of their will. The indwelling demons are never experienced by an outsider as they are by their host or hostess. Although these “hallucinations” or subjective realities remain concealed, what does give them away are the startling outward manifestations of their presence as expressed by their human puppets. They do not leave voluntarily, so it is always necessary to get outside help when inhabited. Much of the lore of the Psychic centers on methods and techniques of transformation, exorcism, and healing.

Gerasene Demon (Ancient Palestine-Jordan)
The Gerasene Demon possession is described in both Luke 8 and Mark 5 and creates the model for the practice of “casting out unclean spirits” in all later western Christian cases. The host of the possession was a Gerasene man who for sometime had not worn any clothing or lived in a house, and when attacked by the possessing “devils” wandered about, living mostly amid the tombs. In a possessed state, he was often restrained by members of his community and bound by chains and letters, from which he always broke loose and escaped into the wilderness. Every night he hailed and gashed himself with stones, and nobody was strong enough to control him, for he seemed to have superhuman powers.
D&D:
Prayer is the effective technique utilized.

Werewolf (Global)
The Werewolf is the most universal form of animal possession-although the were(man)-tiger and other fierce prowling animal possession exists-and is a human transformed into a wolf.
D&D:
A silver bullet, deprived of oxygen, major head trauma or cutting off the head kills a werewolf.

Loup Garou (North America)
The Loup Garou is a bayou werewolf species that originated in France. It is a person transformed, either by a spell cast by another or by choice, into a creature notable for its fiery red eyes, body hair, large claws, long snout and mean disposition.
D&D:
The Loup Garou is terrified of frogs and will run away if a frog is hurled at it.

Leyak (Bali)
The Leyak is a demonic species akin to one type of werewolf: a human being who intentionally transforms himself or herself by occult arts. At night the Leyak can appear as an eerie light or shape-shift to flying monkey or bird. He or she destroys crops, kills people, and is considered the agent of all aberrant, dire events.
D&D:
There are no preventatives or ways that ordinary people can protect themselves from this species.

Dybbuk (Judaism)
The Dybbuk is described as the spirit of a dead person who enters and takes utter possession of a living person.
D&D:
In each case, a Dybbuk must be expelled by a rabbi, who always addresses the in dweller directly and asks its identity. After the rabbi asks several questions, he is usually able to cast it out of the victim’s body.

Kitsune-Tsuki (Japan)
Kitsune-Tsuki (Fox-Possession), is easily diagnosed: when possessed by the wild Fox Spirit the patient must say “I am Inari god of rice” and have severe cravings for rice with red beans (fox favorites). At times possessed seems depressed and restless and find it impossible to sleep at night. They prefer eating alone and will not make eye contact.
As for special powers, cases have been recorded of illiterate people who when possessed were able to write fluently and draw pictures of the fox as messenger of Inari on their communications.
D&D:
A Priest is often called in, berates the Fox Spirit, and tells it to get out.

Mara (Buddhism)
Mara, the agent of Death, travels from Hinduism (as the embodiment of Death itself and of the powers of Evil) to become the principle Buddhist demon. He is the tempter, the archenemy of the Buddha, the obstacle to potential Enlightenment, the personification of greed, hatred and delusion. He tries to lure all spiritual travelers onto the path of worldly desires, which lead to rebirth and not to liberation.
D&D:
All the demons of the Buddhist tradition are teachers, employed to arrest attention with their grotesque and startling appearance.

Yezer Ha-ra (Judaism)
The Yezer Ha-ra (evil inclination) has a recurring role in Jewish rabbinical writings as an embodiment of that within the heart or imagination of humankind that functions as ha Satan (the adversary) and tempts a man to do wrong. The Yezer Ha-Ra is part of human nature and exists in each human being as an always present potential adversary to good. In most lore the Yezer Ha-ra seems to be a powerful impulse that can erupt in the heart of a Rabbi or scholar as easily as in the heart of an ordinary person. The emphasis is on the struggle within each inhabited psyche.
D&D:
The Yezer Ha-Ra cannot be quelled by an external action. It cannot be placated, propitiated or tolerated.

The Seven Deadly Sins (The Christian West)
The Seven Deadly Sins were grouped together by St. Gregory the Great in the sixth century. The seven later appeared importantly in the Summa Theologica of the thirteenth century, where they are defined and described by St. Thomas Aquinas as “appetites”. The sins are agents of serious moral offenses, transgressions of the divine law that lead to eternal damnation.
1. Pride-Lucifer
Pride is considered the root of all evil. It is pride that Lucifer fell from the celestial to the subterranean realm.
2. Avarice-Mammon
Avarice is a worldly sin, creating misers, thieves and even murderers.
3. Lust-Asmodeus
Lust is carried up from hell by the goat, an animal long considered lascivious, or the ass, who played the same role in ancient Rome.
4. Envy-Leviathan
That the “twisting serpent” from the primordial deep, Leviathan, is Envy incarnate seems appropriate.
5. Gluttony-Beelzebub
Beelzebub, seen as Gluttony, started out as a Canaanite deity whose name in Hebrew (Baal Zebub) meant Lord of the Flies and who later came to be equated with Satan.
6. Anger-Satan
Anger is another sin of the Devil and one of immense importance and fiery power.
7. Sloth-Belphegor
Belphegor is depicted as sloth incarnate. This sin is considered one of the flesh.
D&D:
The seven penitential psalms were sometimes illustrated by the sins in medieval manuscripts to remind the reader which psalm was effective against which sin, and the recitation of these psalms was considered a way of obtaining forgiveness.

Mr. Hyde (Robert Louis Stevenson)
Mr. Hyde, an unusual, subjectively observed doctor-possession species created in a laboratory, occupies half then slowly takes over all of Dr. Jekyll’s mind and body.
D&D:
No human can live with a divided nature, either by repressing the demonic creative passionate side that Henry Jekyll describes as his “certain impatient gaiety of disposition” or by allowing it to dissociate by potion or by mental breakdown.

Id (Freud)
The Id, a past-Enlightenment demon, is a powerful species of seething want. The Id, coined by Sigmund Freud, is the core portion of his tripartite model of the human psyche: Id, ego and super ego. In the ancient model of celestial, terrestrial and subterranean realms of the spirits, the demonic always resides in the very depths of its habitat-under mountains, sea and domicile. Here, we find the Psyche abode of Id, in the unlit, utter darkness of the unconscious. Above it, and in part born from it, in the ego, the partially conscious realm, which we recognize as our own identity; above the ego, also in part unconscious, is the super ego, with its severe moral whip, lashing at the ego from on height with guilt.
D&D:
When the demonic Id gets out of control, and the ego cannot bear being in the middle of a raging sandwich, the human will feel overwhelmed.

Shadow (Jung)
A personal Shadow rests in the depths of the unconscious of every person, ready and waiting to spring. The unconscious Shadow is represented and hidden away like an unopened trunk somewhere in a corner of a dark and forgotten room. The stronger the control “persona” -the mask worn for society- exerts over the individual, the more his true self hides repressed within his shadow, and the less he wants to encounter its existence.
D&D:
If the Shadow is admitted into the light of consciousness and faced squarely by the individual, it can be unitized to effect change.

Yamantaka (Tibetan Buddhism)
Yamantaka is usually dark blue, has eight buffalo heads, thirty-four arms, and sixteen legs. He holds a terrible weapon in each of his thirty-four hands. He wears a necklace of several human heads. He is a terrifier. However, Yamantaka is used by Tibetan Buddhism practitioners as a teacher and an aid on the spiritual path to enlightenment.
D&D:
When the Tibetan Buddhist adept attempts to defeat the poisonous demoness of Envy, he does not do so by reciting the opposing virtue, charity.

Quantum Daimon (Guide)
The Quantum Daimon is an unidentified flying species inspired by the subatomic universe that is neither angel nor demon but simply potential -an energy flowing everywhere that can become a positive force.
D&D:
The Guide attempts a fin-de-siecle Pandora experiment to recapture the daimon, that quantum energy imbuing all nature, brining with it inspiration, uncanny movements of sudden awareness and acting as intermediary of the Divine and the terrestrial realm.


Sunne lai sunkomala
Bhanne lai fulko mala;
Yo Katha baikuntha jala
Bhanne belama turunta aula

For him who listens
a garland of gold,
a wreath of flowers
for her who tells;
This tale now to heavens will go
But at once fly back
when it’s time to tell again

–Spoken by the Nepalese before telling a tale...